Building IP: BMY Patent Application re "CARBAMOYLOXYMETHYL TRIAZOLE CYCLOHEXYL ACIDS AS LPA ANTAGONISTS"
United States Patent Application
Cheng; Peter Tai Wah ; et al.
August 11, 2022
CARBAMOYLOXYMETHYL TRIAZOLE CYCLOHEXYL ACIDS AS LPA ANTAGONISTS
The present invention provides compounds of Formula (I): ##STR00001## or stereoisomers, tautomers, pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates or prodrugs thereof, wherein all the variables are as defined herein. These compounds are selective LPA receptor inhibitors.
1. A compound of Formula (X): ##STR00476## wherein R.sub.20 is independently C.sub.1-6 alkyl or H; R.sub.21 is independently C.sub.1-6 alkyl or H; and X.sup.5 and X.sup.6 are independently CH or N.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
 This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 17/221,859, filed Apr. 5, 2021, pending, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 16/732,387, filed Jan. 2, 2020, now U.S. Pat. No. 11,007,180, issued May 18, 2021, which is a divisional application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 16/038,739, filed Jul. 18, 2018, now U.S. Pat. No. 10,576,062, issued Mar. 3, 2020, which is a divisional application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/628,104, filed on Jun. 20, 2017, now U.S. Pat. No. 10,071,078, issued Sep. 11, 2018, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 62/352,792, filed Jun. 21, 2016, the entire content of which is incorporated herein by reference.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to novel substituted triazole compounds, compositions containing them, and methods of using them, for example, for the treatment or prophylaxis of disorders associated with one or more of the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Lysophospholipids are membrane-derived bioactive lipid mediators, of which one of the most medically important is lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). LPA is not a single molecular entity but a collection of endogenous structural variants with fatty acids of varied lengths and degrees of saturation (Fujiwara et al., J Biol. Chem., 2005, 280, 35038-35050). The structural backbone of the LPAs is derived from glycerol-based phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidic acid (PA).
 The LPAs are bioactive lipids (signaling lipids) that regulate various cellular signaling pathways by binding to the same class of 7-transmembrane domain G protein-coupled (GPCR) receptors (Chun, J., Hla, T., Spiegel, S., Moolenaar, W., Editors, Lysophospholipid Receptors: Signaling and Biochemistry, 2013, Wiley; ISBN: 978-0-470-56905-4 & Zhao. Y. et al, Biochim. Biophys. Atca (BBA)-Mol. Cell Biol. Of Lipids, 2013, 1831, 86-92). The currently known LPA receptors are designated as LPA1, LPA2, LPA3, LPA4, LPA5 and LPA6 (Choi, J. W., Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2010, 50, 157-186).
 The LPAs have long been known as precursors of phospholipid biosynthesis in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, but the LPAs have emerged only recently as signaling molecules that are rapidly produced and released by activated cells, notably platelets, to influence target cells by acting on specific cell-surface receptors (see, e.g., Moolenaar et al., BioEssays, 2004, 26, 870-881, and van Leewen et al., Biochem. Soc. Trans., 2003, 31, 1209-1212). Besides being synthesized and processed to more complex phospholipids in the endoplasmic reticulum, LPAs can be generated through the hydrolysis of pre-existing phospholipids following cell activation; for example, the sn-2 position is commonly missing a fatty acid residue due to deacylation, leaving only the sn-1 hydroxyl esterified to a fatty acid. Moreover, a key enzyme in the production of LPA, autotaxin (lysoPLD/NPP2), may be the product of an oncogene, as many tumor types up-regulate autotaxin (Brindley, D., J. Cell Biochem. 2004, 92, 900-12). The concentrations of LPAs in human plasma & serum as well as human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) have been reported, including determinations made using sensitive and specific LC/MS & LC/MS/MS procedures (Baker et al. Anal. Biochem., 2001, 292, 287-295; Onorato et al., J. Lipid Res., 2014, 55, 1784-1796).
 LPA influences a wide range of biological responses, ranging from induction of cell proliferation, stimulation of cell migration and neurite retraction, gap junction closure, and even slime mold chemotaxis (Goetzl, et al., Scientific World J., 2002, 2, 324-338; Chun, J., Hla, T., Spiegel, S., Moolenaar, W., Editors, Lysophospholipid Receptors: Signaling and Biochemistry, 2013, Wiley; ISBN: 978-0-470-56905-4). The body of knowledge about the biology of LPA continues to grow as more and more cellular systems are tested for LPA responsiveness. For instance, it is now known that, in addition to stimulating cell growth and proliferation, LPAs promote cellular tension and cell-surface fibronectin binding, which are important events in wound repair and regeneration (Moolenaar et al., BioEssays, 2004, 26, 870-881). Recently, anti-apoptotic activity has also been ascribed to LPA, and it has recently been reported that PPAR.gamma. is a receptor/target for LPA (Simon et al., J. Biol. Chem., 2005, 280, 14656-14662).
 Fibrosis is the result of an uncontrolled tissue healing process leading to excessive accumulation and insufficient resorption of extracellular matrix (ECM) which ultimately results in end-organ failure (Rockey, D. C., et al., New Engl. J. Med., 2015, 372, 1138-1149). Recently it was reported that the LPA1 receptor was over-expressed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. LPA1 receptor knockout mice were also protected from bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis (Tager et al., Nature Med., 2008, 14, 45-54).
 Thus, antagonizing the LPA1 receptor may be useful for the treatment of fibrosis such as pulmonary fibrosis, hepatic fibrosis, renal fibrosis, arterial fibrosis and systemic sclerosis, and thus the diseases that result from fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis-Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis [IPF], hepatic fibrosis-Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis [NASH], renal fibrosis-diabetic nephropathy, systemic sclerosis-scleroderma, etc.)
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention provides novel substituted triazole compounds including stereoisomers, tautomers, pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates or prodrugs thereof, which are useful as antagonists against one or more of the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors, especially the LPA1 receptor.
 The present invention also provides processes and intermediates for making the compounds of the present invention.
 The present invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and at least one of the compounds of the present invention or stereoisomers, tautomers, pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates or prodrugs thereof.
 The compounds of the invention may be used in the treatment and/or prophylaxis of conditions in which LPA plays a role.
 The compounds of the present invention may be used in therapy.
 The compounds of the present invention may be used for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of a condition in which inhibition of the physiological activity of LPA is useful, such as diseases in which an LPA receptor participates, is involved in the etiology or pathology of the disease, or is otherwise associated with at least one symptom of the disease.
 In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a method of treating fibrosis of organs (liver, kidney, lung, heart and the like as well as skin), liver diseases (acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, regenerative failure, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver hypofunction, hepatic blood flow disorder, and the like), cell proliferative disease [cancer (solid tumor, solid tumor metastasis, vascular fibroma, myeloma, multiple myeloma, Kaposi's sarcoma, leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and the like) and invasive metastasis of cancer cell, and the like], inflammatory disease (psoriasis, nephropathy, pneumonia and the like), gastrointestinal tract disease (irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), abnormal pancreatic secretion, and the like), renal disease, urinary tract-associated disease (benign prostatic hyperplasia or symptoms associated with neuropathic bladder disease, spinal cord tumor, hernia of intervertebral disk, spinal canal stenosis, symptoms derived from diabetes, lower urinary tract disease (obstruction of lower urinary tract, and the like), inflammatory disease of lower urinary tract, dysuria, frequent urination, and the like), pancreas disease, abnormal angiogenesis-associated disease (arterial obstruction and the like), scleroderma, brain-associated disease (cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and the like), neuropathic pain, peripheral neuropathy, and the like, ocular disease (age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), cicatricial pemphigoid, glaucoma filtration surgery scarring, and the like).
 In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a method of treating diseases, disorders, or conditions in which activation of at least one LPA receptor by LPA contributes to the symptomology or progression of the disease, disorder or condition. These diseases, disorders, or conditions may arise from one or more of a genetic, iatrogenic, immunological, infectious, metabolic, oncological, toxic, surgical, and/or traumatic etiology.
 In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a method of treating renal fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, hepatic fibrosis, arterial fibrosis and systemic sclerosis comprising administering to a patient in need of such treatment a compound of the present invention as described above.
 In one aspect, the present invention provides methods, compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, and medicaments described herein that comprise antagonists of LPA receptors, especially antagonists of LPA1.
 The compounds of the invention can be used alone, in combination with other compounds of the present invention, or in combination with one or more, preferably one to two other agent(s).
 These and other features of the invention will be set forth in expanded form as the disclosure continues.