MEMS gyroscope, the abbreviation of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System, is based on Coriolis vibration effect and micro-nano processing technology. It's based on mechanics.
Mechanical gyroscopes utilize the gyroscopic effect, which is the principle that the angular momentum of a rotating body remains constant in space.
The structure of MEMS gyroscope is simpler than mechanical gyroscopes. MEMS technology is used to manufacture tiny vibrating structures, and the rotation angular velocity is determined by measuring the vibration frequency and vibration direction of the vibrating structure. There are no rotating parts and bearings. MEMS gyroscopes are very small. For example, Ericco's MEMS gyroscopes are 11 x 11 x 2 mm.
A mechanical gyroscope usually consists of a rotating rotor and a fixed bracket. The rotation speed of the rotor is proportional to the external rotation angular speed. The external rotation angular speed is determined by measuring the rotation speed of the rotor. It has high requirements on process structure, high cost, complex structure, and its accuracy is restricted in many aspects.
MEMS gyroscope has the characteristics of low power consumption, low cost, small size, light weight, high accuracy, fast response, etc., and are very suitable for mass production. Because MEMS is extremely small, its weight, cost and power consumption are much lower than traditional mechanical gyroscopes. For example, MG2-50/100（https://www.ericcointernational.com/gyroscope/mems-gyroscope/er-mg2-100-north-seeking-mems-gyro.html）is
a navigation grade north-seeking gyro designed specifically for ground navigation. Of course, it can also be used for air and maritime navigation. It has 0.01-0.02°/hr bias instability and 0.0025-0.005°/√hr angular random walk．For the field of oil drilling and mining, north seeking is very important, and most gyro tools are tubular, special-shaped, and the working environment is harsh, mostly underground and other places. Therefore, MEMS gyroscope is more capable of this job than other gyroscopes and serve the tools in these fields very well.
Mechanical gyroscopes also have the advantages of high accuracy and fast response speed, but they have complex structures, large volumes, heavy weights, and complex processes, and are gradually being replaced by other types of gyro sensors.
Different application areas
MEMS gyroscope solves the problems of heavy weight and high cost of previous gyroscopes. For the high-tech market that is changing every day, MEMS technology is advancing every day and gradually meets the requirements of various industries. For example, the conventional operating temperature of MEMS gyroscope is −45°C to +85°C, but for the field of petroleum logging, they have better temperature requirements, so MEMS gyroscopes similar to MG2-022 （https://www.ericcointernational.com/gyroscope/high-temperature-north-seeking-mems-gyro-for-gyro-tools125c.html
) have been developed. Yes, it is a high-temperature north-seeking gyroscope. Its maximum temperature can reach 125 degrees, which not only meets the high temperature requirements, but also can perform north-seeking very well.
Mechanical gyroscopes are the first generation of gyroscopes. Due to the increasing demand in the modern market, the original technology can no longer meet the existing needs, so mechanical gyroscopes have gradually faded away in the market.